On average 13-15 chickens should be able to produce a dozen eggs a day for the best part of a year.
A single hen is only capable of laying one egg a day, and there will be days when they don’t lay eggs at all. Shortly after laying, the hen will start developing a new egg. It takes around 26 hours for an egg to fully form.
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Fewer Eggs In Winter
During winter most chickens stop laying, as they need 14 hours of daylight to properly stimulate the cycle within their bodies. Also, they need to use a lot more energy just keeping themselves warm.
However, this seasonal pattern can be sidestepped by feeding chickens more during winter and adding an artificial light/heater to their coop. The light should be set on a timer to turn on at 4am and switch off at 8am, helping stimulate a 14 hour day.
Bear in mind that this will shorten your hen’s laying years. Each bird only has a certain number of eggs inside her, and if she lays all year, her egg-laying will be finished after about two and a half years.